Lampreys offer lessons in federal Asian carp response

Federal officials trying to prevent invasive Asian carp from infiltrating the Great Lakes are using many of the same techniques used to fight the sea lamprey, a parasite that was once as feared as Asian carp but has been largely brought under control.

Though the work has been long and costly, lamprey populations have been cut by about 90 percent in the Great Lakes, suggesting that an Asian carp invasion — should it occur — would not necessarily cripple fishing and recreation industries as feared.
“When a lot of people say, ‘The game is over’ when it comes to Asian carp getting into the Great Lakes, I don’t think so,” said Michael Hoff, invasive species coordinator at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. “It’s a different game we play. But it’s not over.”
Federal agencies have used toxic chemicals and barriers to keep lampreys at bay, as they are now doing with Asian carp. Researchers also use pheromones to attract or repel the lampreys, interfering with their spawning patterns.
The U.S. Geological Survey is developing the same technology to fight Asian carp, said Leon Carl, the agency’s Midwest regional executive. Though the project was discontinued due to lack of funding, recent federal research funding through the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative will allow it to move forward, he said.
If the lampreys provide precedent, though, the Asian carp response will remain expensive for decades. More than 60 years after lampreys first invaded the Great Lakes, the federal government continues to spend $20 million to $30 million per year fighting them, Carl said

Volunteers, professionals help visitors enjoy overlook

By Craig Moorhead for the Houston County News

OverlookThrough cold mist and drizzle, the clear notes of thousands of tundra swans greeted visitors to the Waterfowl Observation Day Nov. 13 near Brownsville.

The event, hosted by the Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife Refuge and Mississippi River Wild, a friends of the refuge group, showcases one of the greatest bird migration corridors on the North American continent. Besides swans, many varieties of waterfowl — including ducks, geese, coots and even raptors — sail down the waterway.

Busloads of bird watchers arrived at the Brownsville overlook Saturday morning. One of those groups, from Winona, had as tour guides Dave Palmquist, naturalist of Whitewater State Park, and Edward Lagace, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Winona District park ranger.

“This is my 27th annual swan watch field trip,” Palmquist said. “Considering the weather, this is a pretty darn good turnout.”

The swan watch has followed the birds over the years, he explained, with tours beginning in Weaver and then Alma, Wis. Now the favored spot is Brownsville, due to extensive habitat work done there in recent years.

“This is my third tour,” Lagace said. “We brought 50 people today, but I had to turn about 20 more away when they called in after the deadline to sign up. We may need to bring two buses next year. People just love coming, just absolutely enjoy this.”

Umbrellas sprouted and rain drops glistened on spotting scopes. River Wild volunteers served bowls of chili, along with other warm victuals. Sue Fletcher, naturalist/educator with the Fish and Wildlife Service, held a big jar of broadleaf arrowhead tubers. Attached to the roots of the plant, they’re the reason the swans are here.

“One swan can eat about six pounds of these per day,” she said. “That’s about two of these containers.

“They do a count every week, and the latest one showed 5,000 to 7,000 tundra swans,” Fletcher added. “That was early last week, so there may well be more here now. In addition, there are about 150,000 canvasback ducks on the refuge, which takes in 260 miles of the Mississippi (River) from Wabasha to Rock Island, Ill.”

That’s a large portion of the total population of the big diving ducks. Fletcher told birders that if they scanned the river, they’d also see other species, including Canada geese, mallards, wood ducks, green wing teal, coots, mergansers, ring neck ducks, golden eyes and bald eagles.

Palmquist said that 12,000 to 15,000 tundra swans can sometimes be seen in the area. In fact, 20 percent to 25 percent of the total eastern population of tundra swans rest and feed in this region in November and December, leaving only when the waters freeze. Then they’ll continue south and east, wintering along the Atlantic seaboard, mostly from Maryland to the Carolinas. The eastern population breeds on a vast swath of arctic tundra from Alaska to Hudson Bay.

Swans from Overlook
Tundra swans swim near the Brownsville observation deck on Saturday. The birds will likely remain in the area until freeze-up, biologist say. (Moorhead-HCN)

Mississippi River Wild President Ken Visger said that in spite of the weather, more than 300 people attended Saturday’s event. For those who missed the boat, there’s more birding to be had. Two observation decks are located along Minnesota Highway 26 south of Brownsville. Both the upper (northern) deck, where Saturday’s festivities were held, and the lower deck, closer to Reno, sport permanently mounted spotting scopes.

“The volunteers are great,” Lagace said. “It’s important to note that Saturdays and Sundays throughout November, there will be staff here with scopes for people to use, and people to talk to (including MRW members) and ask questions regarding the swans.”

“Without the friends group and other volunteers, we’d be sunk,” Palmquist said. “We wouldn’t have the manpower to run these programs.”

A busload of college students from Decorah, Iowa, loaded up to leave. The second bus from the Winona area began to load up as well. The drizzle continued, but cars trickled in and visitors stared out at the big white birds with their long, graceful necks.

Winona resident Farmer Parsi showed his daughter, Ryka, what wild swans look like, birds that have flown straight from a place that most humans will never see. Speaking for the people who were braving the cold, he summed the sight up in two words: “It’s gorgeous.”

Upper Miss Designated Wetland of National Significance

Swans flying over Upper Mississippi River Refuge

The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, is an international treaty signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971. The convention provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation of wetlands around the world.

In January 2010, the Upper Mississippi River Floodplain Wetlands became one of more than 1,800 Ramsar sites worldwide. Over 302,300 acres of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin are included in the Ramsar designation.

In making the announcement, Secretary Salazar said, “The ecological, social, and economic values of the Upper Mississippi River make it one of the crown jewels of this nation’s wetlands. This marks the 27th U.S. wetland designated under the Convention on Wetlands. The U.S. became a party to the convention in 1987, which now includes 150 countries. It’s certainly fitting that this area has now officially received international recognition.”

The designation includes just over 300,000 acres of federal and state lands and waters of the Upper Mississippi River floodplain from near Wabasha, Minn. to north of Rock Island, Ill. The designation includes all of the 240,000-acre Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge headquartered in Winona, Minn. and the adjacent 6,226-acre Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge in Wisconsin.

Other designated sites in the U.S. include such wetland icons as Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge in Georgia and Florida, Everglades National Park in Florida, and Horicon Marsh in Wisconsin.

The site consists primarily of flowing main and side channel habitats, backwater marshes, and floodplain forests.

Facts about the Upper Mississippi River Floodplain Wetlands of International Importance:

  • Home to more than 100 native fish species and 42 native mussels including the nationally endangered Higgins eye pearlymussel
  • Located at the core of the Mississippi Flyway, through which 40% of North America’s waterfowl migrate. Treasures of the floodplain wetlands are the canvasback duck and tundra swans.
  • Well over 3 million people visit each year

Celebrate Working Wetlands

10/10/10 for 10!

Celebrate Working Wetlands

At Brownsville Overlook

Brownsville, MN

On the Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge

Join us on Sunday, October 10, 2010 (10]10]10 for 10!) at 10:00 AM to celebrate
wetlands for at least 10 minutes
The “official” event will last 10 minutes and 10 seconds.
10 am A flock of people will meet at Brownsville Overlook on Highway 26 near Brownsville,
We will write down 10 reasons why we love wetlands.
10:10 am We will chant “We Love Celebrating Wetlands!” a photograph of us will be taken
with our list in hand.
10:10:10 am the Official Event Over!
Stay and enjoy the migrating waterfowl and meet the Mississippi River Wild members.
Spotting scopes will be placed and binoculars available to enjoy the view.
Contact for more information: Paula Ogden_Muse @ 608 783 8403 or email Paula_Ogden
Events Listed at: 10/10/10 for 10! Brownsville Overlook, Minnesota

Basin Protection Act

Re   Kind Continues Efforts to Protect Mississippi

Upper Mississippi River Basin Protection Act to Reduce Sedimentation, Improve Water Quality

Washington, DC U.S. Rep. Ron Kind (D-WI) today reintroduced his Upper Mississippi River Basin Protection Act, legislation calling for the development of a coordinated, public-private approach to studying and reducing nutrient and sediment runoff in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. The bill also establishes a water-quality monitoring system and a computer modeling program to analyze data.

“The river plays a vital role in our economy and our quality of life in western Wisconsin,” said Rep. Kind, founder and Co-chair of the Upper Mississippi River Basin Congressional Task Force.  “Increased sediment and nutrient flow into the upper basin poses a very serious threat to the long-term health of the entire Mississippi River system. This bill will lay the scientific foundation necessary to ensure the future quality and beauty of the Mississippi for generations to come.”

The accumulation of excess sediment from increased soil erosion and nutrients, such as fertilizers and animal waste, in the Upper Mississippi River Basin degrades aquatic and wetland habitat and imperils a wide variety of fish and waterfowl.  The increased soil erosion causes applied fertilizer from area farms to wash into the river, resulting not only in dangerously high nitrogen and phosphorous levels, but also a reduction in the long-term sustainability and income of family farms, and the plaguing of farmers annually with $300 million in unnecessary costs.   In addition, sediment accumulation fills the main shipping channel of the river and valuable wetlands throughout the basin, reducing the value to wildlife and their capacity as nutrient filters and costing the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers more than $100 million annually in dredging costs.

The Upper Mississippi River Basin Protection Act aims to produce the data needed to better understand sediment and nutrient flow from its source in the landscape to its destination in rivers and lakes and drive the innovation needed to solve the excess sediment and nutrient problem in the Mississippi River System.  The legislation establishes a sedimentation and nutrient reduction monitoring network and an integrated computer modeling program that, when combined, will provide the baseline data needed to make scientifically sound and cost-effective decisions to improve the Upper Mississippi River’s ecosystem.

“While there is no easy solution to stopping the runoff of sediment and nutrients into the Upper Mississippi River Basin, this legislation will make significant strides toward reducing this flow of harmful pollutants into the river.  I have worked closely with farmers, industry, sporting groups, conservation organizations, and government agencies to develop this effective, basin-wide, and non-regulatory approach, and am confident it will find support in both the House and the Senate.”

The reintroduction of the Upper Mississippi River Basin Protection Act is particularly timely considering the Mississippi River Basin Initiative introduced by Department of Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack late last week.  The USDA initiative aims to improve the overall health of the entire Mississippi River, as opposed to the current regional approaches, and provides $320 million for improvement projects in states bordering the river.  Together, the two efforts will take important steps to maintain and improve the overall health of one of America’s most central water resources.

The Upper Mississippi River system, with tributaries and a basin encompassing much of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, and Missouri, is widely recognized as one of our nation’s great multi-use natural resources. The Mississippi River and its tributaries provide drinking water to approximately 22 million Americans and the system’s 1,300 navigable miles transport millions of tons of commercial cargo via barges.  In addition, 40 percent of North America’s waterfowl use the wetlands and backwaters of the main stem as a migratory flyway, illustrating the environmental significance of the system as well as recreation capabilities.


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CODE RED — Carp-Pocalypse Begins in Lake Michigan

June 24, 2010 — A 19-pound Asian carp has been found near the shore of Lake Michigan, above a navigation lock that regional political leaders had been demanding the Army Corps slam shut to try to keep the invaders out of the world’s largest freshwater system.

The fish confirms what DNA evidence had been telling fishery managers for months – that Asian carp had indeed breached an electric fish barrier on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, considered the last line of defense for Lake Michigan. Read the following four articles to get the details.

“Michigan Attorney General and gubernatorial hopeful Mike Cox said the find means that the region’s “worst fears” have been realized, and he is considering further legal action.”

“We have zebra mussels which have clogged water intake pipes and whose effect on Great Lakes water users in the United States and Canada may total several billion dollars spent on machinery to stop them from clogging pipes. We have the Asian carp which are threatening to follow zebra mussels as the latest foreign species to invade and unbalance the lakes by competing for the same food supply that feeds game fish and thus supports the sport fishing industry. We have longstanding fish consumption advisories resulting from chemical contamination. So yes, it would be a very good idea for the mayors, governors, premiers, and federal governments to get together and talk about disaster plans and about the disasters we already have.”

“One invasive bighead Asian carp has been found in Lake Calumet along the Chicago Area Waterway System – the first fish that has been found above the U.S. Army Corps of Engineer’s electric barrier system built to keep out the voracious exotic species.”

“There’s an underwater war underway in the Midwest – an offensive to keep the ravenous Asian Carp out of the Great Lakes. On Wednesday, it became clear: The carp are winning.”

Pelicans eating Asian Carp

I spent all weekend at Dresser Island Conservation Area photographing waterfowl along the Mississippi River. While I was there I made some interesting images of white pelicans foraging on huge, silver carp. It was fascinating to watch as sometimes it took several minutes for the pelican to get the fish down. Also, when a pelican caught a fish the others converged on it to fight for the bounty. As a matter of fact, when a common merganser caught a shad the pelicans would converge on the little guy and try to take its morsel away as well.

Danny Brown
Fisheries Management Biologist
Missouri Department of Conservation