By: Erin Johnson
Lake surgeon season has begun and Genoa! Over the past few weeks staff from Genoa has been traveling to various locations to collect and spawn lake sturgeon eggs from Shawano Dam, near Green Bay, Wisconsin Dells Dam and on the Rainy River at the First Nations Tribe Reservation in Ontario Canada. Ripe female eggs were collected into a stainless dish where they were then fertilized by the males. Once collected the eggs are distributed into 3 or 4 separate buckets were active sperm from 3 or 4 males are added. Using more than 1 male at a time will help ensure genetic diversity. Once blended a mixture of bentonite clay and well water are added and stirred for 30 minutes. This clay mixture is used to prevent eggs from clumping and sticking together. After the clay bath the fertilized eggs are disinfected using an iodine solution and returned to the hatchery. Upon arriving at the hatchery, an inventory is taken and eggs are put into egg jars where they are treated and turned until they hatch. Sturgeon “babies”, also known as fry, are initially fed a diet of brine shrimp. As they grow they are moved onto a krill and bloodworm diet. Once the fry have grown to a couple inches they are tagged and prepped for distribution. Sturgeon are tagged using a small coded metallic wire with each strain assigned its own code. These tags help to identify where the sturgeon was reared when caught for future surveys. Once all sturgeon has been tagged, staff will travel with the sturgeon to their new homes. Sturgeons are stocked into various rivers and streams in efforts to restore and maintain populations. For the start of the 2016 lake sturgeon season Genoa is currently hatching approximately 130,500 eggs. Stay tuned for summer updates and send offs in the fall!
Collecting sperm out of a male lake sturgeon from the Shawano Dam.
Collecting eggs out a female lake sturgeon from the Shawano Dam.
Blending fertilized eggs in a bentonite clay mixture
First lake sturgeon fry of 2016!
The US Fish and Wildlife Service considers the monarch butterfly a flagship species and has made monarch conservation a national priority. The Genoa National Fish Hatchery is working to create and enhance existing habitats for monarchs by planting milkweed and other nectar plants on 75 acres of hatchery property. Last fall milkweed seeds were removed from pods at the hatchery and planted this spring by hatchery staff. Increasing essential habitat will promote the health of both larvae and adult monarch butterflies. Once seeds are planted the second step has been engaging people in monarch conservation through community involvement and school partnerships. Staff members from Genoa visit local schools for in class lessons on monarch butterfly conservation.Teachers from Summit Environmental School and Southern Bluffs Elementary (La Crosse, WI) have also incorporated monarch butterfly conservation into their science curriculum at school. These lessons are on monarch butterfly life history and habitat enhancement and focus on the role students can play in monarch conservation both at school and at home.
During the fall of 2015 students helped hatchery staff remove seeds from milkweed pods as part of a hands on in class lesson. The majority of the seeds were planted on hatchery grounds and a portion remained in the classroom. Students and teachers worked together and planted individual seeds in recycled milk cartons and grew the plants in the classroom under heat lamps. Once the plants were between 4-6 inches they were transported to the hatchery where students spent the day planting and enhancing habitat on hatchery grounds as part of the Genoa Fish Hatchery Outdoor Classroom. In the future hatchery staff plans on providing guidance on increasing school yard habitats for monarch butterflies. Through these school partnerships hatchery staff are looking forward to growing the next generation of monarch butterfly conservationists.
By: Orey Eckes
April 12, 2016
What would you do if someone gave you $36 million – after you picked your jaw up off the ground, I mean?That’s our happy predicament: Last year, nearly 40,000 volunteers donated 1.5 million hours, valued at more than $36 million, to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Those combined hours equal 681 full-time employees. The Service has a workforce of only a little over 9,000 employees, so those volunteer hours are a mighty big gift.
We have an opportunity, however modest, to give all our volunteers a huge THANK YOU this week during National Volunteer Week.
INTERESTED? Get more information on volunteering with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
It is almost impossible to list all the activities our volunteers help us with – everything probably describes it best – but here is a brief list: banding a bird, greeting a visitor, leading a birding tour, helping with a wildlife survey, sustaining a garden, planting native plants, pulling invasive weeds, working on various maintenance tasks and more.
Volunteers came out for February’s annual mussel-cage repair day at Genoa National Fish Hatchery in Wisconsin to help repair our old mussel cages and get them ready for the upcoming production season. After a couple seasons in the river, mussel cages need refurbishing. Genoa staff treated the volunteers to a lunch of hamburgers with all the trimmings. It is a small price to pay for the amount of hard work done by our dedicated group of volunteers. Photo by USFWS
BY DOUG ALOISI, GENOA NFH
Megan Bradley arrives at Genoa NFH. Credit: USFWS
Megan Bradley, formerly the Southwest Virginia Freshwater Mussel Recovery Coordinator of the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fishes, has joined us at Genoa National Fish Hatchery (NFH) as our new freshwater mussel propagation biologist. We are very excited to have her join our team as she brings a depth of experience in intensive mussel propagation systems with her that we plan to use in the “Clam Palace”, our freshwater mussel propagation facility.
Genoa’s mussel program is a relatively new program, beginning in 2000, and originally concentrated on extensive mussel culture. This method focused on the placement of fish that have been “infested” with mussel larvae, or glochidia, and caged over suitable mussel habitat. As the field of mussel propagation has progressed, more intensive methods of mussel culture have been developed. These involve controlling temperature, water quality, and feed availability in specially designed culture units that typically recirculate or use standing aerated water. Megan did her Masters of Science work at Missouri State University with Dr. Chris Barnhart, one of the pioneers of modern freshwater mussel propagation. Some of the very systems that Dr. Barnhart developed have either been put into use or will be put into operation soon in order for us to further the station mission of freshwater mussel conservation. Megan will be working closely with Nathan Eckert, our senior mussel propagation biologist, on the many ongoing Recovery and Restoration projects that Genoa is working on.
Please join us in welcoming Megan to the Midwest!
BY EMY MONROE, WHITNEY GENETICS LAB
On the left, Zeb, Nick Berndt, Mai Yang, and Erica are checking out the new code Katie updated so they will know how to analyze the black carp data as it is generated this week. On the right, Kyle Von Ruden, Maren Tuttle-Lau, and Nick Grueneis are loading reactions in the automated liquid handling systems. Credit: Emy Monroe, USFWS
The Whitney Genetics Laboratory (WGL) team added three new employees this winter, and everyone welcomed the extra hands and creative minds to the work group. Our new team members come to us from three different states: Erica Mize moved here from South Dakota, Katherine (Katie) Bockrath moved from Georgia, and Zebadiah (Zeb) Woiak was back in Wisconsin before starting at the lab.
Each of our new employees brings a different skill set to our lab, and they have already diversified the analyses conducted in the lab and introduced new methods to streamline efforts, saving money and time. They got to know each other and the rest of the WGL team by working over the winter to optimize methods for genetic identification of wild-caught fish eggs and larvae.
These samples are collected by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service field offices or state partners via ichthyoplankton sampling events as part of the unified efforts against Asian carp in the Chicago Area Waterway, the Upper Mississippi River, and tributaries of both systems. WGL can now provide our partners species identification services by collecting sequences from two different genes and using those sequences to compare results to an international sequence data base. Of course, they would not be ready to go unless they were ready to help process the thousands of environmental DNA (eDNA) samples as part of the early detection and surveillance programs for bighead and silver carp.
They spent a few weeks in training with our experienced team members, and this past week, they passed their lab exams and demonstrated proficiency in following the procedures outlined in the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP). Thus, they are “QAPP-certified” – and just in time, eDNA samples should begin arriving in a couple of weeks!
The lab has also been busy working with our partner lab at the US Army Corps of Engineers Research and Development Center to validate and test new eDNA markers for Black Carp. It has taken a couple of different field trips by our dedicated Carterville and La Crosse Fish and Wildlife Conservation Offices to find field positive samples to use in these validation studies. Last week, the second set of field samples were extracted, and everyone was busy in the lab on a Monday morning, setting up real-time polymerase chain reactions and learning how to analyze the data with freshly updated code on the computer. We are all looking forward to a busy and productive field season!
During September, several Region 3 scuba divers completed dives twice a week to check for gravid winged mapleleaf mussels on the St. Croix River near Saint Croix Falls(WI). Winged mapleleaf mussels are listed as endangered at both the state and federal level. This was, by far, the highlight of my diving season since I had the chance to observe several different mussel species displaying their lures to attract potential host fish. On one of my dives, we had the chance to observe two winged mapleleaf that were gravid and actively displaying. Nathan Eckert from the Genoa National Fish Hatchery brought these animals back as brood stock for future recovery efforts.
By Kyle Mosel
A female winged mapleleaf mussel is examined for signs of embryos within.
We’ve all heard the saying “Third time’s the charm.” This statement rang true during October in a mutually beneficial manner when Jenna Merry resumed working at the La Crosse FWCO … now as a permanent employee! Jenna first began working here during the summer of 2010 as a Student Temporary Employee while enrolled as an undergraduate at Winona State University. She returned to work here again in 2012, on a part-time basis, while enrolled in graduate studies at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse where she earned a Master of Science degree (Biology) in 2015. Jenna left our office earlier this year to work briefly for the Carterville FWCO in Wilmington, Illinois, where her primary duty was keeping Asian carp out of the Great Lakes. Jenna is a now a fishery biologist at our office whose focus will be to help prevent/control the spread of aquatic invasive species in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. Welcome home and back on board!
by Mark Steingraeber
Last month students from Southern Bluffs Elementary, Summit Environmental and Lincoln Middle Schools (LaCrosse WI) spent the day trading in text-books for hands on learning at the Genoa National Fish Hatchery. The hatchery partners with Southern Bluffs, Lincoln and Summit schools to support their mission of providing students with a solid educational foundation in the core academic areas with an environmental focus integrated throughout the curriculum. This directly correlates to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s connecting children with nature initiative. Genoa collaborates directly with teaches to match activities at the hatchery with corresponding class work. Students visit the hatchery in fall, winter and spring each year as part of the outdoor classroom and Genoa staff members also visit the classroom for in class lessons. In class lessons consist of native fish identification, fish anatomy, native fresh-water mussels and monarch restoration and habitat enhancement. During the first session of outdoor classroom students experience hands on learning activities based off of lessons in the classroom.
Students make and identify different animal tracks
In the fall students tour the hatchery and learn about the importance of aquatic resource management and the role the hatchery plays in sustaining and recovering fish and mussel populations. In winter students learn about animal tracks, furs, and experience the history and sport of trapping and importance of trapping as an effective management tool. Students also grow milkweed in the classroom over the winter months for planting on hatchery grounds in the spring. During spring session the students will have a tour of the hatchery to see how the fish have grown overwinter. This allows students to observe different species of fish and life stages from eggs through adults. The students end their day with a lesson on prairie restoration and the ecological benefits of prairies to many species of animals. In addition students plant milkweed that was grown over the winter in the classroom. Students also use quadrats to assess the amount of cover of different species of prairie grasses and possible invasive plants. This data allows the hatchery to assess its restoration practices and take action where needed. These hands on experiences trap memories and instill conservation in the minds of these future stewards of our natural resources.
By: Orey Eckes